Inteligência Competitiva – As ferramentas de Business Intelligence

Dentro dos processos de BI temos dois processos fundamentais para o tratamento da informação: o ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) e o OLAP (On-Line Analytic Processing).

Para cada um desses processos existem ferramentas que auxiliam no desenvolvimento e na entrega dos resultados.

As ferramentas de BI são aplicações que disponibilizam, acessam e demonstram para as empresas e usuários as informações contidas em suas bases de dados e possibilitam um entendimento rápido das diferentes visões de análise.

Business Intelligence

Fonte: IGTI Blog, Professora autora: Fernanda L. Garro Costa de Pinho

Big bad bosses like Elon Musk keep proving “the power paradox”

The crisis of empathy extends even to a specialist in the science of kindness.

The crisis of empathy extends even to a specialist in the science of kindness. Photo: EPA/RITCHIE B. TONGO

Neuroscientist Tania Singer is the world’s foremost empathy researcher, an expert in the science of kindness. She’s also accused of bullying colleagues at the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig, Germany.

Singer’s brain-imaging work has shown that empathy emerges from a vast cognitive network connecting vision, language, perception, analysis, and interpretation. But mapping brains and controlling one’s own mind are not the same thing. In the lab, Singer was allegedly harsh, intimidating, and controlling, as well as discriminatory against pregnant women, according to an Aug. 8 report by Kai Kupferschmidt in Science.

Neuroscientist Tania Singer is the world’s foremost empathy researcher, an expert in the science of kindness. She’s also accused of bullying colleagues at the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig, Germany.

Singer’s brain-imaging work has shown that empathy emerges from a vast cognitive network connecting vision, language, perception, analysis, and interpretation. But mapping brains and controlling one’s own mind are not the same thing. In the lab, Singer was allegedly harsh, intimidating, and controlling, as well as discriminatory against pregnant women, according to an Aug. 8 report by Kai Kupferschmidt in Science.

Ronell denies the allegations. Reitman is “comparing me to the most egregious examples of predatory behaviors ascribable to Hollywood moguls who habitually go after starlets,” the New York Times(paywall) reports her as saying. Presumably, she’s alluding to the likes of movie producer Harvey Weinstein, who now faces criminal charges for forcing women who wanted to work on the big screen into sexual relations. But Reitman argues that Ronell’s disproportionate power as a superstar professor who could impact his future career prospects is precisely why he succumbed to her advances and made no formal accusation during his studies. That’s what starlets said about Weinstein.

Many esteemed scholars defended Ronell against the accusations without knowing much about the matter, including American gender theorist Judith Butler and Slovenian philosopher Slavoj Žižek. They said the student was motivated by malice and that the professor’s stellar professional reputation made it impossible to believe she did wrong.

In other words, Ronell’s champions maligned the accuser and defended the accused, on the basis of Ronell’s professional power. In that sense, too, her case resembles those of media moguls whose indiscretions were allowed to go unchecked for so long simply because their work was widely admired.

The power paradox

The question all of these matters raise is whether power is fundamentally a corruptive force. Davey says the answer isn’t quite that simple.

“There is fairly new research that power actually causes changes in your brain,” she explains. Power doesn’t necessarily corrupt as much as it does interrupt the brain’s ability to mirror emotions, which results in less empathy. “Normally, we are keenly aware of the emotional states of those around us. Those given positions of power seem to be less tuned in to the impact of their behavior on those around them, making it easier to persist with harmful or abusive behavior,” Davey notes.

Full article here

Source: Ephrat Livni, QUARTZ, 16 de agosto 2018

Not enough people are paying attention to this economic trend By Bill Gates

By the second semester of my freshman year at Harvard, I had started going to classes I wasn’t signed up for, and had pretty much stopped going to any of the classes I was signed up for—except for an introduction to economics class called “Ec 10.” I was fascinated by the subject, and the professor was excellent. One of the first things he taught us was the supply and demand diagram. At the time I was in college (which was longer ago than I like to admit), this was basically how the global economy worked:

Capitalism Without Capital book review

There are two assumptions you can make based on this chart. The first is still more or less true today: as demand for a product goes up, supply increases, and price goes down. If the price gets too high, demand falls. The sweet spot where the two lines intersect is called equilibrium. Equilibrium is magical, because it maximizes value to society. Goods are affordable, plentiful, and profitable. Everyone wins.

The second assumption this chart makes is that the total cost of production increases as supply increases. Imagine Ford releasing a new model of car. The first car costs a bit more to create, because you have to spend money designing and testing it. But each vehicle after that requires a certain amount of materials and labor. The tenth car you build costs the same to make as the 1000th car. The same is true for the other things that dominated the world’s economy for most of the 20th century, including agricultural products and property.

Software doesn’t work like this. Microsoft might spend a lot of money to develop the first unit of a new program, but every unit after that is virtually free to produce. Unlike the goods that powered our economy in the past, software is an intangible asset. And software isn’t the only example: data, insurance, e-books, even movies work in similar ways.

The portion of the world’s economy that doesn’t fit the old model just keeps getting larger. That has major implications for everything from tax law to economic policy to which cities thrive and which cities fall behind, but in general, the rules that govern the economy haven’t kept up. This is one of the biggest trends in the global economy that isn’t getting enough attention.

If you want to understand why this matters, the brilliant new book Capitalism Without Capital by Jonathan Haskel and Stian Westlake is about as good an explanation as I’ve seen. They start by defining intangible assets as “something you can’t touch.” It sounds obvious, but it’s an important distinction because intangible industries work differently than tangible industries. Products you can’t touch have a very different set of dynamics in terms of competition and risk and how you value the companies that make them.

Haskel and Westlake outline four reasons why intangible investment behaves differently:

  1. It’s a sunk cost. If your investment doesn’t pan out, you don’t have physical assets like machinery that you can sell off to recoup some of your money.
  2. It tends to create spillovers that can be taken advantage of by rival companies. Uber’s biggest strength is its network of drivers, but it’s not uncommon to meet an Uber driver who also picks up rides for Lyft.
  3. It’s more scalable than a physical asset. After the initial expense of the first unit, products can be replicated ad infinitum for next to nothing.
  4. It’s more likely to have valuable synergies with other intangible assets. Haskel and Westlake use the iPod as an example: it combined Apple’s MP3 protocol, miniaturized hard disk design, design skills, and licensing agreements with record labels.

None of these traits are inherently good or bad. They’re just different from the way manufactured goods work.

Full article here

Source: Bill Gates, August 14, 2018

How to design an enduring logo: Lessons from IBM and Paul Rand

COURTESY OF IBM

Many tech companies these days obsess over constantly redesigning and tweaking their logos. In that context, IBM’s 43-year-old logo is veritably the branding equivalent of ancient sacred scripture.

Its iconic eight-bar logo is the marquee for IBM’s awakening to the power of design in the 1950s. The story goes that after seeing a particularly compelling store display of Olivetti typewriters in New York City, IBM’s then newly installed CEO, Thomas J. Watson, Jr. had an epiphany. “Good design is good business,” he declared. It became the company’s mantra and mandate and signaled a profound design-conscious evolution in the company’s operations. Until then, IBM reflected the conservative taste of Watson’s father who founded the company, an aesthetic that the younger Watson compared to a “first-class saloon on an ocean liner.”

Guided by Eliot Noyes, an architect who was the curator of industrial design at the Museum of Modern Art at that time, Watson sought to overhaul IBM’s image from a nondescript corporation that sold punch-card timekeeping machines, data-storage diskettes, and tabulating machines (with a rather generic name too—International Business Machines) to a company with a modern sensibility, a distinct character and a colorful lore, much like Olivetti.

Founded on June 16, 1911, IBM was previously known as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (C-T-R) resulting from the merger of three companies—the Herman Hollerith’s Tabulating Machine Co, the International Time Recording Company, and the Computing Scale Company. C-T-R became to be known as International Business Machines, or IBM, on February 14, 1924.

The IBM logo was designed by the pioneering graphic designer and art director Paul Rand, who is celebrated for translating the tenets of European modernism to American corporate communications—introducing motifs from Bauhaus, Cubism, de Stijl, and Constructivism in his commercial work. Until the Brooklyn-bred designer came to the scene, most advertising work was controlled by copywriters.

Along with Eero SaarinenIsamu Noguchi, and Charles and Ray Eames (pdf), Rand was part of the design dream team that Noyes assembled for IBM. Aligning with Watson’s treatise on good design, Rand understood that a distinguishing mark was essential to a company’s success. “In the competitive world of look-alike products, a distinctive company logotype is one if not the principal means of distinguishing one product from that of another,” Rand wrote in the introduction of IBM’s logo-usage manual. “The value of the logotype, which is the company’s signature cannot be overestimated.”

Subtle, strategic changes

The logo’s redesign did not happen overnight. Working with IBM’s existing mark that already carried some cachet with its customers, Rand’s first design intervention was subtle. To improve the mark’s legibility, he replaced the font Beton with a similar but stronger-looking typeface called City. Rand tooled with the shape of the letterforms too, he lengthened the serifs and made the stacked squares in the letter “B” larger.

But there was still something about the shape of the logo that bothered the detail-oriented designer. “I felt there was a problem with the sequence, going from narrow to wide without any pause, without any rhythmic possibility,” explained Rand, bugged by the disparity in visual weight of the three letters. Experimenting with variations of the logo for over a decade, in 1972 Rand introduced stripes to establish a better sense of unity in the monogram and suggest a sense of movement. It has remained unchanged since then.

Beyond the page

But Rand approached the logo redesign with more than aesthetics in mind. He made sure that the logo worked in all conceivable applications—brochures, magazine ads, TV commercials, stationery, communication materials, building signage, trucks, and packaging. At that time, this meant anything from diskette sleeves, to boxes of carbon paper, printer ribbons, ribbon cartridges and microprocessing cards to the repeating pattern on IBM’s egg-shaped pavilion at the 1964 World’s Fair.

COURTESY OF IBM
Typewriter ribbon packaging design.
COURTESY OF IBM
Selectric Magnetic Tape Packaging, 1965.

Rand, who also designed the logos for UPS, Westinghouse, Enron, ABC, and Steve Job’s short-lived NeXT, was known to present only one design concept to his clients. But the single design approach is not to speak of Rand’s stubbornness or lack of effort. Rand presented his proposals in the form of elaborate booklets that showcased the mark’s versatility across numerous spreads. In doing so, he was able to stretch the client’s imagination beyond the page.

COURTESY OF IBM
The IBM logo on the façade of an office building, 1968.

Rand also wrote and designed guidance materials like the pamphlet Use of the Logo / Abuse of the Logo: The IBM Logo, Its Use in Company Identification and a frame-worthy “IBM House Style” poster showing the various sizes of the eight-bar logo. The specificity of the language on these materials testifies to Rand’s acuity about the quirks in the anatomy of the mark. “Black stripes are drawn thicker than white stripes. White stripes look thicker especially when lit (signs, TV screens). Black and white should appear similar optically,” Rand noted.

“As precise as he was in his own work, he was twice as precise in how others used his logos,” wrote Steve Heller, who collects many of Rand’s manuals and has written the quintessential biography on Rand.

Managing a modern brand

Like he did for many of his clients, Rand remained involved in the stewardship of IBM’s visual branding for decades. Today, that mantle partly falls on the shoulders of Terry Yoo, IBM‘s VP of brand strategy and experience design. After so many years, does she ever feel tempted to redesign the logo? Considering the changes in tastes and technologies, is the demise of Rand’s type-and-stripe design in sight?

“You don’t throw away something that special very easily,” Yoo tells Quartz. She explains that Rand’s graphic legacy has actually given her and IBM’s many designers around the world a solid foundation to build upon, and one that they are very proud to have.

IBM
Logo play allowed. Visuals from “100 Icons of Progress”

As much as he valued precision, Rand was not opposed to play. In 1981, Rand designed a witty rebus poster Eye-Bee-M to commemorate IBM’s THINK campaign. Under his guidance, IBM published reports, brochures, and advertisements that played with variations on the logo’s typography, stripe pattern, and color. After Rand’s passing in 1996, IBM continued the playful tradition in the covers of its annual reports, and memorably in the visuals for the 100 Icons of Progress for its centennial in 2011.

COURTESY OF IBM
IBM annual report covers

Yoo has a pragmatic outlook on how the IBM logo ought to be managed across the company with over 300,000 employees worldwide. Instead of constantly policing its use and insisting on stringent adherence to manuals, she spends time explaining the logic of how and why things are done, to champion and empower local expressions of IBM’s message using their graphic vocabulary. “The logo stays. If something has to change, we can work with the stuff around it,” she says.

“To build a great brand, you have to build a great company,” Yoo says, which is another way of saying that nitpicking at a company’s logo is not always the best solution—even when stocks fluctuate and things go a bit awry. Yoo’s tempered observation about a logo’s significance—even a great one like IBM’s—echoes Rand’s reflections too. He wrote, “It is only by association with a product, a service, a business, or a corporation that a logo takes on any real meaning. If a company is second rate, the logo will eventually be perceived as second rate.”

Inteligência Competitiva: tabloide New York Post esgota nas bancas após anúncio de marca cool na capa

Tabloide New York Post esgotou nas bancas nova-iorquinas após capa com a marca Supreme

Tabloide New York Post esgotou nas bancas nova-iorquinas após capa com a marca Supreme – Reprodução/Instagram

​O tabloide New York Post esgotou nas bancas nova-iorquinas na última segunda-feira (13) após publicar uma capa de impacto. Menos pelas notícias, é verdade, e mais pelo que estava impresso na primeira página: uma logomarca da grife Supreme, cujos artigos viraram alvo de “devoção” dos fãs.

A proposta tanto do jornal quanto da marca, conhecida pelas lojas de skate e pelas roupas casuais, era tornar a edição item de colecionador.

Objetivo claramente alcançado: o tabloide sumiu dos pontos de venda e, em sites como o ebay, era negociado por US$ 20 (R$ 78) –a edição publicada durante a semana custa US$ 1 (R$ 3,91).

Segundo o Post, algumas cópias chegaram a ser comercializadas por US$ 100 (R$ 391) –um combo com o jornal, a carta do Post sobre a parceria e uma embalagem de devolução saía por US$ 52,50 (R$ 205) no ebay.

Em alguns locais, segundo reportagem do próprio Post, o jornal esgotou 7h30, três horas antes do horário em que isso costuma ocorrer.

O falatório sobre a capa histórica começou no domingo, quando começaram a pipocar rumores no Twitter sobre a iniciativa, pensada para casar com a divulgação do catálogo de outono (Hemisfério Norte) da Supreme, na mesma segunda-feira.

Na manhã de segunda, a Supreme postou um vídeo no Instagram da edição de colecionador do Post rodando na gráfica do jornal, no Bronx.

Foi a primeira vez que o Post publicou uma capa inteiramente dedicada a um anúncio publicitário. “A colaboração de hoje do New York Post com a Supreme é um verdadeiro item de colecionador”, afirmou Jesse Angelo, publisher do Post.

“A Supreme é uma marca tão ‘cool’ e nós temos tanta afinidade, do desenho parecido das logos, de sermos ousados e nunca envergonhados, e baseados em Nova York.”Angelo não mencionou a quantidade de exemplares vendidos –a circulação diária do jornal é de cerca de 230 mil unidades, segundo dados da DMA (Data & Marketing Association).

Fonte: Danielle Brant, NOVA YORK, Folha de S.Paulo

Pós-graduandos questionam exigência de inglês para estudar em Portugal

A geóloga Lana Nunes, 38, doutoranda da UFPA, está prestes a embarcar para uma temporada de pesquisa científica na Universidade do Minho, Portugal. Ao menos teoricamente.

A pesquisadora deve viajar ainda em agosto, com bolsa do PDSE (Programa de Doutorado Sanduíche no Exterior), da Capes (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, ligada ao Ministério da Educação), mas ainda não pôde pedir visto ou adquirir passagens porque a análise de sua proficiência na língua inglesa está pendente na agência de fomento.

O intercâmbio da pedagoga Paula Silva, 32, doutoranda da UFMG, também está indefinido. Professora da UFVJM (Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri), ela deve viajar em setembro para Coimbra, mas espera confirmação da Capes. “Tenho três cartas de aceite da universidade portuguesa, que frisam que a língua de trabalho é o português”, diz.

Na regra do edital de dezembro, para o intercâmbio em países lusófonos, agora é necessária a pontuação mínima de 550 no Toefl (sigla para Teste de Inglês como Língua Estrangeira).

Pós-graduandos encaminharam carta e abaixo-assinado à Capes, questionando o edital. Segundo eles, a nova regra dificulta o desenvolvimento de pesquisa, já agravado num contexto de sucessivos cortes orçamentários —na semana passada, uma nota da Capes alertou para o risco de interrupção do pagamento de todas as bolsas de estudos a partir de agosto de 2019.

Alunos alegam que o nível de cobrança é muito alto se comparado ao de outras instituições, citando como exemplo a Comissão Fulbright, programa de intercâmbio do governo dos EUA, que exige a pontuação 527 no Toefl.

Antes, bastava declaração do orientador no exterior atestando nível comunicativo do aluno adequado para as atividades previstas.

À Folha a Capes afirma que a mudança se deu a partir de consultas a instituições internacionais que identificaram “deficiência dos estudantes brasileiros em relação ao conhecimento da língua inglesa para produção de conhecimento científico em padrões exigidos mundialmente”.

Portugal foi o principal destino de alunos de graduação do Ciências Sem Fronteiras. Em 2013, o país foi excluído do programa —uma medida, segundo o MEC à época, para que os estudantes aperfeiçoassem uma segunda língua

Em maio, o presidente da Capes, Abilio Baeta Neves, participou de audiência pública na Comissão de Educação, na Câmara, com a presença de estudantes e representantes da ANPG. Na audiência, Aline Silva, 34, doutoranda da UnB, fez um relato pessoal. Ela trabalha no Ministério da Saúde e deve estudar no Canadá a partir de agosto.

Aline contou que estudou inglês desde a infância, deu aulas do idioma num projeto voluntário e, desde 2008, apresenta trabalhos e participa de workshops ministrados na língua inglesa. Entretanto, ela conseguiu notas 530 e 537 no Toefl. “Domino a língua e ainda assim não consegui as pontuações pedidas”, diz.

Informado sobre a diferença entre os índices pedidos pela Capes e pela Fulbright durante a audiência de 29 de maio, Neves se comprometeu a aceitar a nota da Fulbright (527).

Mas, no dia 11 de junho, a Capes encaminhou comunicado reiterando a obrigatoriedade de proficiência. O informe esclarece que, no prazo de três meses, os pós-graduandos ainda devem entregar resultado de novo exame com os 550 pontos pedidos inicialmente. Bolsistas que não cumprirem a regra devem retornar ao Brasil e devolver os valores recebidos à agência.

Alunos afirmam que a nova exigência não considera o perfil socioeconômico de parcela dos pós-graduandos.

“É uma orientação elitista, pois desconsidera o processo de recente expansão da universidade pública e acesso à pós-graduação”, diz a historiadora Flávia Calé, 34, presidente da ANPG (Associação Nacional dos Pós-Graduandos).

“Manter o nível exigido, além de limitar possibilidades de acesso às universidades estrangeiras, implicaria um recorte que marginaliza estudantes mais pobres que alcançaram o êxito de hoje estarem na pós-graduação”, diz a carta dos alunos. Eles consideram os exames excludentes, pois são caros e demandam preparação específica.

O Toefl ITP custa hoje cerca de R$ 380. A modalidade IBT, R$ 980. A bolsa de doutorado da Capes é de R$ 2.200.

Desde fevereiro, a historiadora Giane Souza, 43, doutoranda da UFSC, desembolsou mais de R$ 3.200 em aulas particulares e R$ 1.700 em inscrições. Ela, que já fez cinco provas, conseguiu pontuar 507 na última tentativa.

Ela desenvolverá pesquisa no Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, a partir de setembro, mas sob “concessão condicionada”, isto é, depois dos três primeiros meses deve apresentar a nota 550.

Os acadêmicos reconhecem que a proficiência é importante, mas argumentam que o nível de cobrança da Capes deveria ser “gradual”.

Eles pedem o fim da obrigatoriedade de proficiência de língua inglesa para países lusófonos e propõem como alternativa, para os demais países, a exigência do nível B1 do Quadro Europeu Comum de Referência para Línguas, um patamar intermediário.

Em nota, a Capes afirma ter adotado parâmetros internacionais que pedem o nível B2 (equivalentes a 543 a 620 pontos no Toefl ITP).

“O inglês é a língua mundial da ciência. A participação do estudante exige redigir trabalhos científicos, apresentar-se em eventos internacionais e discutir temas complexos em sala de aula. Esse entendimento é reconhecido pela academia brasileira”, conclui a nota.

Fonte: Juliana Sayuri, FLORIANÓPOLIS,  Folha de S.Paulo

Revista Inteligência Competitiva

A Revista Inteligência Competitiva recebe artigos, relatos técnicos, de experiências, de pesquisas, entrevistas, resenhas e estudos de casos em regime de fluxo contínuo, ou seja, os materiais são avaliados à medida que são recebidos.

A submissão é realizada pelo link, aqui

Nós agradecemos muito a colaboração de todos e contamos com os autores que vêm contribuindo com pesquisas voltadas à Inteligência Competitiva.

Prof. Dr. Alfredo Passos
Editor Chefe

Ricos começam a abandonar Facebook: primeiro mundo descobre antes de nós a perda de tempo que é usar a rede social

Na quinta-feira, o Facebook perdeu US$ 120 bilhões (R$ 445 bilhões) em valor de mercado após anunciar resultados aquém do esperado no segundo trimestre de 2018. Foi a maior queda da história de Wall Street.

Na mesma ocasião, em medida que teve menos repercussão diante da grandeza do derretimento, a empresa de Mark Zuckerberg anunciou uma mudança na maneira de contabilizar o número de usuários.

Agora, não se divulgará mais quantas pessoas passaram por dia ou mês no Facebook, no Instagram, no Whatsapp e no Messenger separadamente, mas apenas uma genérica “audiência em nossa família de apps”.

Segundo o último número, são impressionantes 2,5 bilhões de usuários.

O que se esconde por trás da maquiagem contábil é simples: parou de crescer e começa a cair o número de pessoas que usam o Facebook. Nos mercados avançados, diminuiu (Europa) ou estagnou (EUA e Canadá). A compensação ainda vem dos emergentes como América Latina.

Mas Zuckerberg não desistiu. Na última semana, também, o jornal “The New York Times” descobriu que o Facebook avançou nas tentativas de colocar seu pé na China. Teve aprovado o funcionamento de uma subsidiária na cidade de Hangzhou.

Desde então a licença foi suspensa, mas mais por disputa entre os poderes locais. O criador da rede social cobiça o gigantesco mercado chinês há tempos. Aprendeu mandarim e até pediu ao líder Xi Jinping que sugerisse um nome para Zuckerberg batizar sua primeira filha.

A China, aquele mesmo país que “não compartilha dos mesmos valores que temos”, como disse o empresário em entrevista há duas semanas, ao defender o virtual monopólio do mercado do Facebook.