Como desenvolver líderes, e não funcionários

“Peter Drucker era otimista em relação aos executivos nos Estados Unidos. Esse otimismo aos poucos feneceu, à medida que testemunhou um escândalo atrás do outro e a forma como os líderes pensavam, antes de tudo, em si próprios. Drucker esperava que as grandes organizações industriais proporcionassem aos seus funcionários um ambiente onde houvesse comunhão de princípios e exercício de cidadania, dotando a vida deles de significado e propósito.

Drucker desejava que as empresas criassem uma relação funcional entre indivíduos e nossos ideais como nação, tais como igualdade de oportunidades, liberdade e responsabilidade pessoal. Isso ajudaria a estabelecer uma filosofia de vida prática para as pessoas e serviria como antídoto aos males do totalitarismo. A ausência de uma filosofia funcional nos regimes totalitários foi o tema de seu primeiro livro, The End Of Economic Man (O fim do homem econômico), de 1939.

Ideias Práticas

Em sua organização, você está criando líderes ou funcionários burocratas, seguidores de regras? O que você pode fazer para melhorar a criação de lideranças? Que práticas você pode instituir ou recomendar para aumentar a confiança dentro da sua organização?

Fonte: MACIARIELLO, Joseph A. Um ano com Peter Drucker : 52 semanas de coaching para tornar um líder eficiente. São Paulo : Portfolio-Penguin,2016.

Competitive Intelligence: Brazil Digs Itself a Deeper Hole, by Stratfor

President Michel Temer Photo: Evaristo SA/AFP/Getty Images

Summary

An end to Brazil’s plunge into political instability is not yet on the horizon, which means a sustained economic recovery may not be either. A new obstruction of justice scandal has engulfed Brazilian President Michel Temer and his close allies in Congress at a time when the Brazilian economy was just beginning to climb out of two years of deep recession.

On May 18, Brazilian Supreme Court judge Edson Fachin authorized an investigation into allegations that Temer sought to bribe a former lawmaker who has been threatening to implicate the president in various corruption scandals. The accusations stem from reports a day earlier, which claimed that the president had been caught on tape authorizing the chairman of Brazil’s JBS meat-packing company, Joesley Batista, to pay hush money to former lower house speaker Eduardo Cunha, who has been imprisoned for corruption since November 2016 and has tacitly threatened to help prosecutors build a case against Temer in exchange for a plea bargain.

The audio quality of the recording, which was released on May 18, is poor, and Temer does not appear to explicitly direct Batista to buy Cunha’s silence. But there were clearer parts in which Batista discussed other ways to interfere in the corruption probe with Temer. Though the president is defiantly shunning calls for his resignation, widespread suspicion of Temer’s wrongdoing, combined with the potential for a lengthy probe into the matter, is likely to weaken him. Culture Minister Roberto Freire has already resigned, and other Temer allies will have cause to leave the ruling coalition as well. Meanwhile, street protests against Temer are expected to grow, and at a minimum Temer will lose congressional backing for important economic reforms needed to sustain the country’s recovery.

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The Brazilian economy has shown more promise in 2017 than it has in years. Earlier this week, the Central Bank of Brazil’s economic activity index — a leading indicator released ahead of official gross domestic product figures — reported 1.12 percent growth in the first quarter. The news provided some relief for Temer, since it suggests that the economy posted quarterly growth for the first time in two years.

The recession, which began in 2015, has been Brazil’s deepest since the 1930s — a period of decline worse even than the era of hyperinflation in the 1980s and early 1990s. In both 2015 and 2016, the economy contracted more than 3 percent, while unemployment soared from around 5 percent to 13 percent. Inflation surpassed 10 percent in 2015, compelling the Central Bank to begin a monetary tightening cycle that saw interest rates rise to over 14 percent. The same year, Brazil’s currency depreciated more than 48 percent, while public debt jumped more than 21 percent.

At the time there was little cause for optimism. The intensity of the slump, combined with former President Dilma Rousseff’s inability to pass legislation to tame public spending, fueled concerns that Brazil was facing another interminable stretch of double-digit inflation. With the currency continuing to plummet, the government would have difficulties staving off its debts, forcing it to print money at faster rates. Politics only made matters worse. A corruption probe into state-owned oil giant Petroleo Brasileiro became one of the most far-reaching scandals in Brazilian history, implicating all of the country’s traditional political parties as well as its largest construction companies. Last August, it ousted Rousseff herself.

Temer’s Unfulfilled Promise

Temer inherited this storm as acting president in May 2016, and he assumed full responsibility for the crisis following the Senate’s conviction of Rousseff. So far, Temer’s biggest strength has been his substantial support in Congress. From the start, he has prioritized building the strong ruling coalition needed to pass unpopular but overdue economic reforms meant to check public spending and tame inflation and interest rates. Last year, he pushed through a constitutional amendment that will limit public spending growth for the next 20 years, with backing from more than two-thirds of the country’s lawmakers. His administration also eased requirements that Petrobras be the primary operator on every pre-salt oil project, making the Brazilian oil sector more attractive to foreign companies.

Other reforms, however, are still in limbo. This year, for instance, he’s guided contentious labor reforms through the lower house, but the measures have yet to pass the Senate. And in May, Temer was expected to send Congress a proposal to rein in the growing deficits of Brazil’s pension system by, among other things, increasing the retirement age.

The markets initially reacted well to Temer’s ability to move through unpopular reforms, as reflected in the improvement of some macroeconomic indicators. Brazil’s currency has appreciated around 20 percent over the past year, and inflation is expected to decline from over 7 percent last year to around 4 percent this year. This progress has allowed the Central Bank to lower interest rates from 14.25 percent to 11.25 percent, spurring economic activity.

But Temer’s presidency has never been on solid footing. The leader’s lack of charisma, his own corruption allegations, and the fact that he was never elected to office have plagued him from the start. And over the past year, his push for austerity measures has contributed to a steady decline in his approval ratings, which hit just 9 percent this month. Now under fire from new corruption allegations, Temer’s unpopularity is likely to erode his congressional support. At least eight impeachment requests have already been filed since the hush money scandal broke on May 18. (An impeachment process, however, could take more than six months to complete, and at this point the president of the lower house appears reluctant to move forward with it.)

Even without the scandal, popular dissatisfaction with the economy would present a major political challenge for Temer. Brazil’s nascent signs of economic recovery have been uneven, at best. The agricultural sector, for example, is expected to grow 3.6 percent this year, but the pharmaceuticals industry is expected to decline by 15.4 percent. Prolonged political uncertainty will only further undermine the country’s recovery — especially if it derails the push for much-needed economic reforms or cuts short Temer’s term altogether.

Brazil Beyond Temer

The Cunha affair isn’t the president’s only problem. Temer is also under scrutiny from the country’s Superior Electoral Court, which is hearing a case on allegations that the president accepted illegal donations on behalf of his vice president during the 2014 campaign season. His trial is supposed to resume June 6-8, and if just four of the court’s seven justices rule against him, it could lead to his downfall. Temer may be able to buy time by appealing the decision to the Supreme Court. In this scenario, the president of the lower house, Rodrigo Maia, would assume the presidency for 30 days until Congress votes on a successor. (Rumored candidates include Finance Minister Henrique Meirelles, former Supreme Court President and Defense Minister Nelson Jobim, and even former President Fernando Henrique Cardoso.) The new president would then hold the office until October 2018, when the country is supposed to have a presidential election. Nevertheless, this successor would be merely a caretaker and almost certainly struggle to push through contentious austerity measures. Attention would quickly move from reform to preparing for the 2018 vote.

It is possible that Congress will instead try to pass a constitutional amendment (requiring two-thirds support) to move up the election. Should it do so, several notable candidates will be gunning for Temer’s job, including former President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and Jair Bolsonaro, Marina Silva and Ciro Gomes. (A requirement that members of the executive or judiciary relinquish their posts six months prior to a presidential campaign would effectively remove all sitting mayors, governors, judges and prosecutors from the race, including popular Sao Paulo Mayor Joao Doria.) Early polls show da Silva leading the pack with support from around 25 percent of the voting public, followed by Bolsonaro at 21 percent and Marina Silva at 7 percent. The seemingly never-ending crisis of political scandal and economic woe in Brazil has fueled a surge in anti-establishment sentiment, creating an environment that favors candidates seen as outsiders such as Bolsonaro and Doria — both of whom have moved up in polls as support for traditional parties has waned.

Should the next president be an outsider from a small or medium-size party, he or she would face the tall order of forming the broad coalition needed to pass legislation in a multiparty system. So, regardless of how Temer’s fall plays out, congressional paralysis may remain a fact of life in Brazil. And amid persistent political uncertainty, the economic recovery that was supposed to be around the corner is likely to remain just that.

Source: Copyright ©2017 Stratfor Enterprises, LLC. All rights reserved. May 19, 2017 | 16:22 GMT

Haja valor agregado: Como vender uma garrafa de água por US$ 100

(Foto: Divulgação)

O que levaria um consumidor a pagar US$ 100 por uma garrafa de água? Muito simples: bastaria que o líquido – nesse caso, luxuoso – fosse extraído de icebergs do Oceano Ártico, em uma região remota da Noruega. Pois foi justamente esse o preço cobrado pela Harrods, a famosa loja de departamentos de Londres, por 750 ml da Svalbarði Polar Iceberg Water (essa letra esquisita do nome é o “edh”, usado em dialetos noruegueses). Note-se que o produto, ainda por cima, vem “engarrafado” em uma história de amor. O empresário Jamal Qureshi afirma que iniciou a produção após coletar um pouco do “néctar” no território de Svalbard, em 2013, como um presente para a esposa. Emoções à parte, Qureshi hoje retira lotes de 15 toneladas de gelo em viagens a icebergs em Kongsfjorden, a mil quilômetros do Polo Norte. Faz tudo com permissão do governo de Svalbard. Cada viagem resulta na produção de 13 mil garrafas. A companhia garante que o processo é sustentável. Alega que, se não retirasse o líquido, ele teria como destino o mar e não as refinadas mesas mundo afora. Eis aí uma boa história, em uma bela garrafa, para se vender.

Fonte: Época NEGÓCIOS, março 2017

Inteligência Competitiva – País: Os 11 livros que Antonio Candido considerava fundamentais para entender o Brasil

  1. O Povo Brasileiro”, de Darcy Ribeiro – “livro trepidante, cheio de ideias originais, que esclarece num estilo movimentado e atraente o objetivo expresso no subtítulo”.
  2. Raízes do Brasil”, de Sérgio Buarque de Holanda – “análise inspirada e profunda do que se poderia chamar a natureza do brasileiro e da sociedade brasileira a partir da herança portuguesa, indo desde o traçado das cidades e a atitude em face do trabalho até a organização política e o modo de ser”.
  3. História dos Índios do Brasil”, organizada por Manuela Carneiro da Cunha – “redigida por numerosos especialistas, que nos iniciam no passado remoto por meio da arqueologia, discriminam os grupos linguísticos, mostram o índio ao longo da sua história e em nossos dias, resultando uma introdução sólida e abrangente”.
  4. Ser Escravo no Brasil”, de Kátia de Queirós Mattoso – “uma excelente visão geral desprovida de aparato erudito, que começa pela raiz africana, passa à escravização e ao tráfico para terminar pelas reações do escravo, desde as tentativas de alforria até a fuga e a rebelião”.
  5. Casa Grande e Senzala”, de Gilberto Freyre – “Verdadeiro acontecimento na história da cultura brasileira, ele veio revolucionar a visão predominante, completando a noção de raça (que vinha norteando até então os estudos sobre a nossa sociedade) pela de cultura; mostrando o papel do negro no tecido mais íntimo da vida familiar e do caráter do brasileiro; dissecando o relacionamento das três raças e dando ao fato da mestiçagem uma significação inédita”.
  6. Formação do Brasil Contemporâneo, Colônia”, de Caio Prado Júnior – “É admirável, neste outro clássico, o estudo da expansão demográfica que foi configurando o perfil do território – estudo feito com percepção de geógrafo, que serve de base física para a análise das atividades econômicas (regidas pelo fornecimento de gêneros requeridos pela Europa), sobre as quais Caio Prado Júnior engasta a organização política e social, com articulação muito coerente, que privilegia a dimensão material”.
  7. A América Latina, Males de Origem”, de Manuel Bonfim – “depois de analisar a brutalidade das classes dominantes, parasitas do trabalho escravo, mostra como elas promoveram a separação política para conservar as coisas como eram e prolongar o seu domínio”.
  8. Do Império à República”, de Sérgio Buarque de Holanda – “expõe o funcionamento da administração e da vida política, com os dilemas do poder e a natureza peculiar do parlamentarismo brasileiro, regido pela figura-chave de Pedro II”.
  9. Os Sertões”, de Euclides da Cunha – “livro que se impôs desde a publicação e revelou ao homem das cidades um Brasil desconhecido, que Euclides tornou presente à consciência do leitor graças à ênfase do seu estilo e à imaginação ardente com que acentuou os traços da realidade, lendo-a, por assim dizer, na craveira da tragédia”.
  10. Coronelismo, Enxada e Voto”, de Vitor Nunes Leal – “análise e interpretação muito segura dos mecanismos políticos da chamada República Velha”.
  11. A Revolução Burguesa no Brasil”, de Florestan Fernandes – “uma obra de escrita densa e raciocínio cerrado, construída sobre o cruzamento da dimensão histórica com os tipos sociais, para caracterizar uma nova modalidade de liderança econômica e política”.

Fonte: Rodrigo Casarin, Blog Página Cinco, UOL, 12/05/2017 10h35

Estratégia, por Michael Porter

Ouço por aí que as empresas grandes, as corporações gigantes, são justamente as que precisam conduzir seus negócios com estratégia. Que as empresas menores, mais empreendedoras, ao contrário, não precisam de estratégia – porque podem procurar outras alternativas para atingir sucesso nos negócios. Minha opinião é exatamente o contrário. Diferente do que se dá com as empresas gigantes, a sobrevivência dos negócios pequenos não pode depender da inércia do mercado. Nem pouco podem essas empresas ser bem-sucedidas pelo uso da força, despejando recursos sobre os problemas. Ao contrário, as empresas pequenas precisam perceber o ambiente competitivo com maior clareza e delimitar e proteger uma posição que tenham condições de defender.

Isso é que é estratégia – escolher a posição que a empresa vai ocupar em seu ambiente competitivo.

Como ponto de partida, o pensamento estratégico envolve a colocação de duas questões críticas. Primeira, qual é a estrutura da sua indústria e qual a sua tendência de evolução com o passar do tempo?

Se o campo de atividade na qual ela se encontra não é muito atraente – e logo adiante será visto como medir essa atratividade – pode-se deixá-lo ou encontrar um modo de redefini-lo.

Segunda, qual é a posição relativa da sua empresa nesse ramo? Não importa quão atraente seja o jogo, não é possível ter êxito quando não se tem um bom posicionamento. Inversamente, é possível pertencer a um setor sem brilho, com baixa rentabilidade média – e, não obstante, ter bons resultados se a empresa conseguir ocupar exatamente o nicho certo. O raciocínio estratégico mostra como estabelecer e defender essa posição.

A cada ramo, independentemente do produto ou serviço, há cinco forças básicas que regem a competição. Em conjunto, elas determinam a atratividade da indústria e sua rentabilidade a longo prazo.

A primeira, é o caráter da rivalidade entre os concorrentes. Se a competição dentro do seu ramo se assemelha a uma guerrilha, se há sempre alguém atacando sua posição, isso torna o ramo menos atraente e menos rentável. Se a competição focalizar mais a imagem e o serviço do que a redução de preços, o ramo como um todo será mais rentável.

Em seguida, há a ameaça da entrada de novos concorrentes. Se for fácil para alguém mais entrar no negócio, acrescentar nova capacidade e corroer preços, isto também provocará a redução dos lucros. Porém, se houver barreiras eficientes dificultando a entrada, todas as empresas do setor se sairão melhor.

Outro fator: a ameaça de produtos ou serviços substitutos. Se você fabrica janelas de alumínio, você tem que se preocupar com os fabricantes de janelas de vinil. Se os consumidores tiverem à sua disposição uma variada gama de possibilidades de escolha, o lucro da empresa daquele setor será prejudicado.

O poder de negociação dos fornecedores determina até que ponto eles podem forçar o aumento do preço do produto que você precisa comprar.

Se a maior parte do que você compra são commodities e há facilidade de troca de fornecedores, estes não poderão exercer muita influência. Entretanto, se você depende de fornecedores de produtos especiais de um ou dois principais, terá de pagar o que pedirem.

O poder de negociação dos compradores igualmente determina o grau da liberdade de movimento em sua política de preços. Se os seus consumidores são muitos mais poderosos que você, podem forçar o preço para baixo, podem forçá-lo a oferecer inúmeros serviços gratuitos, ou a manter estoques grandes envolvendo custo e risco. Isso pode eliminar o lucro de sua atividade.

O equilíbrio dessas cinco forças irá determinar o potencial de lucro fundamental em qualquer ramo.

* Michael Porter é considerado um dos maiores especialistas mundiais em estratégia empresarial. Escreveu 12 livros, entre os quais “Vantagem Competitiva”, que está em sua 19ª edição, e “Estratégia Competitiva”, tido como o melhor trabalho na área.

Analytical marketing by Adele Sweetwood

the analytical marketer

As senior vice president of global marketing and shared services at SAS, Adele Sweetwood guides marketing strategy and go-to-market programs across the company. With 25 years experience at the company, she oversees field and digital marketing investments, demand generation and marketing sciences, as well as retention and event marketing.

Marketing spoke with Sweetwood about what makes the perfect analytical marketer.

Marketing: What does the analytical marketer look like in 2017, and what are the top skills and expertise they possess?

adele sweetwood headshotAdele Sweetwood: Marketers can no longer be either creative oranalytical. One must be both. An analytical marketer has a passion for data and analytics as their basis for decision-making, and how it enhances the visual and creative side of marketing. The analytical marketer is curious, confident and customer focused.

The skills I look for in marketers now look quite different than they did, say, five years ago – it goes well beyond reporting and metrics.

Knowledge of data management principles and analytical strategies, an understanding of the importance of data quality and data governance, and a solid grasp of the value of data in marketing disciplines are now all essential. A successful contributor is proficient in a full range of analytics, which may include optimisation, text, sentiment, scoring, modelling, visualisation, forecasting and attribution. A data scientist might handle the ‘heavy lifting’, but an analytical marketer must understand and utilise the methods in the design of marketing strategies, the monitoring of results and the agility in decision making.

M: How should an analytical operation correctly balance the ‘art’ and ‘science’ of marketing? Is one more important than the other?

AS: The balance depends on the organisation, its customers and the market. There isn’t a ‘split,’ it is an integration of art and science. The idea is that those marketing tools that typically fall under a ‘creative’ umbrella, such as campaign design, personalisation or digital marketing – should all be driven by analytical decision making.

Ideally, marketers will be able to demonstrate direct accountability to results and very quickly pivot to the needs of the customer. From an organisational structure view, there may be functions that lean more towards the art skills or the science skills, but the overlap continues to grow.

M: How can teams effectively nurture the ‘art’ of their marketing, and the ‘science’?

AS: In addition to a strong learning and development plan, we enable individuals to build out their own plans for continual growth. Formal training, ongoing exchanges, and defined accountability. To leverage the shared strengths of our team, SAS has an internal structure in place to help team members continually learn from each other. We call these ‘competency centres,’ which are virtual task forces whose goal is to allow people inside the organisation to share expertise and knowledge in different areas. The idea behind the competency centres is to leverage the skill sets and experience levels across the organisation so that we can share best practices and learn from each other and from our mistakes. The competency centres also drive innovation by initiating new techniques or approaches.

M: How important is an organisation’s culture to the implementation of successful analytical marketing? What can leaders do to create a better culture for analytical marketing to thrive?

AS: Buy-in from marketing leadership and executives is critical in transitioning to an analytical culture. Leaders need to consistently demonstrate their value in an analytical culture by fully adopting an analytical mindset. Culture has to be nurtured constantly – through empowerment, change management and authentic leadership.

We have established frameworks that have established governance and standards. We provide certifications that are required and align to their objectives for performance, and we supply them with the tools required on their desktop. Marketers thrive in an analytical culture because they have confidence in their decisions.

Leading a modern marketing department also requires tenacity and the willingness to embrace constant change, because we’re bombarded with a constant, daily stream of new information and emerging channels. That means encouraging them to take risks—and being prepared to fail fast—while also having the courage to ask what went wrong and why, so they can learn from the experience and try again.

M: What can individuals do to ensure management realise this importance?

AS: As analytical marketers, individual contributors are empowered to make strategic decisions driven by the data, but the first step is knowing where you stand: what tools are available to you?

Then, find the data and own it. I suggest ditching your spreadsheets. Ultimately you’re using data to better understand your customer, so start by using the data and analytics to tell your customer experience story.

Sharing this story throughout your team and the company builds a guiding coalition of change agents to move the analytical marketing culture forward. Share what you want to do, when you want to do it by, and why you’re doing it with management, the C-suite, and across the company.

Remember, this isn’t just a marketing department journey – you’ll need partners to design and implement a culture that works for everyone, and to drive results together.

Finally, embrace the change and celebrate the wins. Remember that if you expect perfection you’ll never reach it. By establishing milestones, objectives and outcomes you’ll be able to measure your progress and keep people excited about moving forward. It’s important to create a platform for sharing these achievements, especially to management.

A little self-promotion is a great thing!

For me, one of the most exciting parts of analytical marketing in practice is seeing how this has opened up a whole new skill set for my team members, piquing their curiosity in interesting ways. Each provides a higher value to our organisation because they’re able to be proactive and agile. Marketers embracing the shift to analytics are worth more now than ever before.

The Analytical Marketer: how to transform your marketing organization

Harvard Business Review Press

Written by Adele Sweetwood, head of global marketing for SAS, The Analytical Marketer is based on the author’s firsthand experience of transforming a marketing organisation. Challenged and inspired by its own analytics products, the SAS marketing team was forced to rethink itself in order to take advantage of the new capabilities these tools offer the modern marketer.

This book is a practical guide for creating a marketing culture that thrives and adds value through data and analytics.

Source: Marketing, BEN ICE ON 21 FEBRUARY 2017

Adele Sweetwood, Vice Presidente Sênior de Marketing, SAS Global, esteve no Brasil nesta quarta-feira, dia 17 de maio de 2017, no SAS Customer Intelligence Forum #SASCIForum e realizou a seguinte apresentação “O Profissional de Marketing Analítico: Como transformar o marketing da sua organização”.